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Xidative stress and neurodegeneration. Cerebellar protein homogenates were used to measure (A) GSK-3b; (B) phospho (p)-GSK-3b; (C) GFAP; (D) GAPDH; (E) HNE; (F) malondialdehyde, MDA; (G) Nitrotyrosine, N-TYR; or (H) b-Actin; by direct binding ELISA. Immunoreactivity was detected with HRP-conjugated secondary antibody and Amplex Red soluble fluorophor. Fluorescence light units (FLU) were measured
In HeLa cells. Autophagy. 2011;7(1):27?9. 64. Debnath J, Mills KR, Collins NL, Reginato MJ, Muthuswamy SK, Brugge JS. The role of apoptosis in creating and maintaining luminal space within normal and oncogene-expressing mammary acini. Cell. 2002;111(1):29?0. 65. Fung C, Lock R, Gao S, Salas E, Debnath J. Induction of autophagy during extracellular matrix detachment promotes cell survival. Mol Bio
Methylnitrosamine, dimethyl sulphate and methyl methanesulphonate. Biochem J 1968, 110(1):39-47. Espey MG, Miranda KM, Thomas DD, Xavier S, Citrin D, Vitek MP, Wink DA: A chemical perspective on the interplay between NO, reactive oxygen species, and reactive nitrogen oxide species. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002, 962:195-206. Pasquier F, Boulogne A, Leys D, Fontaine P: Diabetes mellitus and dementia. Diab
Sible to interpret these results in the light of the effects of gasoline constituents. Another study demonstrated that lead exposure enhances predatory aggression in the cat and provide experimental support for a causal relationship between lead exposure and aggressive behaviour in humans [56]. This was concomitant with deficiency in serotonin that plays an important role to counteract the aggres
Induced neutrophil survival is mediated by HIF-1alpha-dependent NF-kappaB activity. J Exp Med. 2005;201(1):105?5. 89. Mihalache CC, Yousefi S, Conus S, Villiger PM, Schneider EM, Simon HU. Inflammation-associated autophagy-related programmed necrotic death of human neutrophils characterized by organelle fusion events. J Immunol. 2011;186(11):6532?2. 90. Naldini A, Morena E, Pucci A, Miglietta D,
R protein; AbPP-Ab: amyloid-b peptide; AChE: acetylcholinesterase; AD: Alzheimer's disease; CER: Ceramide synthase; ChAT: choline acetyltransferase; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay; GFAP: glial fibrillary acidic protein; GSK-3b: glycogen synthase kinase-3b; H E: hematoxylin and eosin; HFD: high fat diet; HNE: 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; HRP: horseradish peroxidase; i.p.: intraperitoneal; IGF: I
E formation of DNA and protein adducts [105-107] that can serve as persistent sources of oxidative stress, and cause further DNA damage and protein dysfunction. Recently, we demonstrated a role for ceramidemediated neurodegeneration in a model of diet-induced obesity with T2DM [45], and showed that in vitro ceramide exposure causes neurodegeneration with impairments in neuronal viability, energy
S performed using the ABC method, and revealed with DAB (brown precipitate)-see Experimental Procedures. Sections were lightly counterstained with Hematoxylin (blue) to help reveal the tissue architecture. Cerebellar layers: ml = molecular layer; pc = Purkinje cell layer; gc = granule cell layer; wm = white matter. Note focal pc loss in A2, and large zones of pc loss in A3 and A4. (Original Magni
Ingomyelin phosphodiesterase; SPTLC: Serine palmitoyltransferase; STZ: Streptozotocin; T2DM: Type 2 diabetes mellitus; TBS: Tris buffered saline; UGCG: UDP-glucose ceramide glycoysltransferase. Acknowledgements Supported by AA-11431, AA-12908, and K24-AA-16126 from the National Institutes of Health. Author details 1 Department of Pathology (Neuropathology), Rhode Island Hospital, 593 Eddy Street,
Hrough autophagy. Immunity. 2007;27(1):11?1. 93. Pua HH, Dzhagalov I, Chuck M, Mizushima N, He YW. A critical role for the autophagy gene Atg5 in T cell survival and proliferation. J Exp Med. 2007;204(1):25?1.94. Hubbard VM, Valdor R, Patel B, Singh R, Cuervo AM, Macian F. Macroautophagy regulates energy metabolism during effector T cell activation. J Immunol. 2010;185(12):7349?7. 95. Jia W, He Y
We measured gene expression corresponding to insulin and IGF polypeptides and receptors, and insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) that transmit signals required for growth, survival, energy metabolism, and neuronalELISAs were used to measure sustained effects of NDEA treatment and/or chronic HFD feeding on Tau, phospho-Tau, AbPP, AbPP-Ab, ChAT, and AChE levels in brain tissue. Early limited exposur
Ration have soared over the past several decades, suggesting that exposures rather than genetics dictate their etiologies. Our over-arching hypothesis is that shifts in lifestyles and economics have led us to chronically consume excess fat, and get exposed to agents that cause insulin resistance. Consideration given to potential pathogenic agents was focused by the experimental evidence showing t
S. Nutr Rev 2007, 65(12 Pt 2):S152-156. 2. Launer LJ: Next steps in Alzheimer's disease research: interaction between epidemiology and basic science. Curr Alzheimer Res 2007, 4(2):141-143. 3. Wang XP, Ding HL: Alzheimer's disease: epidemiology, genetics, and beyond. Neurosci Bull 2008, 24(2):105-109. 4. de la Monte SM, Neusner A, Chu J, Lawton M: Epidemilogical Trends Strongly Suggest Exposures a
Ki M, Kitagaki H, Yamaji S, Sakamoto S, Matsuda K, Mori E: Reduction of cerebellar glucose metabolism in advanced Alzheimer's disease. J Nucl Med 1997, 38(6):925-928. 58. Larner AJ: The cerebellum in Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 1997, 8(4):203-209. 59. Wegiel J, Wisniewski HM, Dziewiatkowski J, Badmajew E, Tarnawski M, Reisberg B, Mlodzik B, De Leon MJ, Miller DC: Cerebellar at

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